Grammar Notes for Dialogue 1
Inviting Someone Using Vませんか

A negative question form is used to invite someone to do something. For example, いきませんか (Lit. "Won't you go?") is a negative question form of いきます and it is used as a form of invitation ("Would you like to...?"). Additional examples: みませんか ("Would you like to watch?"), しませんか ("Would you like to do it?"), and たべませんか ("Would you like to eat it?"). The following is how to respond to an invitation.

A: あした、コンサートに いきませんか。 A: Would you like to go to a concert tomorrow?
(Go on to specify time, location, etc.)
B: Sure, that sounds good. Let's go.




あしたは ちょっと。。。 
(Short version of the phrases below.)
あしたは ちょっと つごうが わるいんです。 or
あしたは ちょっと ようじが あるんです。

それは ざんねんですねえ。

B: Tomorrow is a little...

B: Tomorrow is a little inconvenient for me.
B: I have other things to do tomorrow.

A: That's too bad.

flag See below for Vましょう expression.

Grammar Note 1 Expressing purpose by using Verb-stem に + motion verb or Nounに + motion verb

We learned the expression かいものにいきます ("go shopping"). In this lesson, we will learn to use the same particle preceded by a coming and going verb in its verb stem form: /Verb-stem + に/. This structure can be combined with a motion verb to express a notion of "come/go somewhere for the purpose of "or "come/go to V." Instead of V-stem, you can also use an activity noun such as ひるごはん or クラス as shown below.

The verb stem is a ます form of the verb minus ます. For example, たべ is the verb stem of たべます ("eat").

Destination   V-stem Motion Verb  
うちに/へ おひるを たべ かえりました。 He went home to eat lunch.
本やに/へ 本を かい いきます。 I will go (to the bookstore) to buy books.
そこに/へ 何(なに)を きましたか。 What did you come there for?
ここに/へ また あそび きて下さい。 Please come to play again.
Destination   Noun Motion Verb  
カフェテリアに/へ   ひるごはん いきました。 I went to cafeteria for lunch.
がっこうに/へ   クラス いきます。 I'm going to school for classes.

Compare this structure with the following /V1て+ V2/ pattern we learned in Lesson 10. The two sentences below have exactly the opposite sequence of actions.

おひるごはんを たべて かえりました。 He ate lunch and went home.
おひるごはんを たべに かえりました。 He went home to eat lunch.

Caution: The Vて form cannot be used with the purpose statement. The sentence below is ungrammatical.

ungrammatical おひるごはんを たべてに かえりました。[ungrammatical]

Time + Place で Activity/Event が あります

We can talk about events and activities using /Placeで ~が あります/ structure. で is the particle for activities. Don't use the particle に (= location of objects and people, NOT events and activities) for this expression.

Place で
Activity/Event が
On Saturday, there was a baseball game in Yokohama.
There will be a party at Mr. Tanaka's house tomorrow.
I have a Japanese class from 9 o'clock at school.

The phrase って in ナイターって? is a conversational form of と (a quotation marker). In this context, ナイターって? means "(If you say) 'nighter,' [what do you mean?]" (= ナイターってなんですか). By the way, ナイター is a かたかな英語 (Katakana English) coined by Japanese to refer to a night game.

じゃ、どようびに また!
  また means "again." Ms. Baker is saying "[See you] again on Saturday." A volitional verb あいましょう can follow it: またあいましょう "Let's meet again!" (See below.)
Grammar Notes for Dialogue 2
 bullet V-stem ましょう(か)("Let's V, (shall we?)")

This lesson introduces a new verb form called the "volitional" form: /Verb-stem + ましょう/. This form is used to encourage someone to join in some action: "Let's V!" A verb stem is a ます form of verbs minus ます (e.g., verb stem of します is し).

bullet たべ ましょう。 Let's eat!
bullet 今日 きょう は三 (じ) かえりましょう Let's go home at 3:00 today!
bullet オーストラリアへ いきましょう。 Let's go to Australia!

The pattern /Verb stem + ましょうか/ can be used for making suggestions for understood topic.

A and B are talking about going to drink coffee.
A: どこで コーヒーを のみましょうか。 Where shall we drink coffee?
B: ぎんこうの まえの きっさてんで のみましょう。 Let's drink (coffee) at the coffee
shop in front of the bank.
A and B are talking about studying together.
A: 今日 きょう のごご、どこで べんきょうしましょうか。 Where shall we study this
B: としょかんで しましょう。 Let's study at the library.
A and B has agreed on doing something on Friday.
A: 金曜 (きんよう に 何(なに)を しましょうか。 What shall we do on Friday?
B: こうえんへ でかけましょうか。 Shall we go to the park?
A: ええ、そうしましょう。 Yes, let's do that.

We learned the invitation pattern /Verb-stem + ませんか/. In response to an invitation, the pattern /Verb-stem + ましょうか/ can be used for volunteering something.

A: こんばん、どこかで あいませんか。 Would you like to meet somewhere tonight?
B: いいですね。
わたしが田中さんのいえへ い きましょうか。
shall I go to Mr. Takana's (i.e., your) house?
A: ええ、おねがいします。 Yes, please.
B: じゃ、何時(なんじ)に いきましょうか。 Then, what time shall I come?
A: 七時半(しちじはん)は どうですか。 How about 7:30?
B: いいですね。 That sounds good.

bullet Indefinite Expression: (QW + か: どこか/なにか/いつか/だれか, etc.)

The /Question word + か/ structure creates English equivalents of "some+..." as shown below.

どこか somewhere 
なにか something
いつか someday, sometime
だれか someone
どれか one of the three or more
どちらか either of the two

Particles が and を can be optionally dropped after QW + か as noted in parentheses below. Other particles cannot be dropped and must be kept. いつか does not need any particle.

いきませんか Would you like to go somewhere?
どこか たべませんか Would you like to eat at somewhere?
なにか(を) たべませんか。 Would you like to eat something?
いつか えいがを みに いきましょう。 Let's go to see a movie some day/time.
だれか あいました。 I met someone.
だれか はなしました。 I spoke with someone.
だれか(が) いますよ。 Someone is there.
どれか(を) かいましょうか。 Shall we buy something (among many)?
どちらか します。 I will choose either of the two.
bullet Whole Negation using QW も + Negative

To respond negatively to a question involving QWか, we use the whole negation structure /QWも + Negative/ as shown below.

Table A: テーブルの上に なにか(が) ありますか。 Is there something on the table?
B: いいえ、なにも ありません

No, there isn't anything on the table.

Not all combinations of /QWも + negative/ are commonly used as a whole negation. The "n/a (not applicable)" below means the combination may not always work as predicted. We will not practice this pattern if it says "n/a".

QW か
QW も + Negative
どこか somewhere 
 どこかで in somewhere (activity)
 どこかに in somewhere (location) どこにも + Neg. not in anywhere どこにも ないです。
 どこか へ
to somewhere (destination) どこにも + Neg.
どこへも + Neg.
to nowhere どこにも 行きません。
どこへも 行きません。
なにか something なにも + Neg. not anything なにも 食べません。
いつか someday, sometime
だれか someone だれも + Neg. not anyone だれも いません。
 だれかに to someone だれにも + Neg. not to anyone だれにも いいません。
どれか one of the three or more どれも + Neg. not any one of them どれも つかいません。
 どれかに to one of the three or more どれにも + Neg. not to any of them どれにも しません。
どちらか either of the two どちらも + Neg. not either of the two どちらも すきじゃないです。
 どちらかに to either of the two どちらにも + Neg. to neither of the two どちらにも しません。
Grammar Notes for Dialogue 3
Grammar Note 1 Nにします/Nでいいです

When we actively choose something, or decide on something, we use the pattern /Nにします/.

  Noun します  
Q: しますか。 What will you have?
A: ハンバーグステーキ します。 I'll have a hamburger steak.

When you passively accept something from a set of choices, you can use the pattern /Nでいいです/. is the て-form of the copula です. Literally, Nでいいです means "N being (the choice), it is OK."

  Nounで いいです  
Q: すみません。ハムサンドは ありません。 I'm sorry. We don't have ham sandwiches.
A: じゃ、やさいサンドで いいです。 OK, then, a vegetable sandwich is fine.

As idioms, you can use Nにします in the following ways:

しょくじに しませんか。 Would you like to have a meal?
コーヒー/おちゃに しましょう。 Let's have a coffee/tea break.
Grammar Note 2 Nだけ

The phrase particle だけ has the notion of "just/only."

A: ほかに ( なに ) か。 Anything else? (Lit. "Something besides [that]?")
[ほか = other; ほかに = besides; 何か = something]
B: それだけです。 That's all. (Lit. "That is the only thing.")

When だけ is used to mark the subject, object, or contrast of the sentence, the particles , , and , respectively, can be optionally dropped from the original sentence. (If they are not dropped, they follow the particle だけ.)

A: レタスとピーマン ( ) いましたか。 Did you buy both lettuce and green pepper?
B: レタスだけ(を)買いました。 I bought only lettuce.

A: みんな行きますか。 Will everyone go?
B: 田中さんだけ(が)行きます。 Only Ms. Tanaka will go.

A: みんな行きますか。 Will everyone go?
B: 田中さんだけ(は)行きません。 Only Ms. Tanaka won't go.

Other phrase particles (if they are present in the original sentence) must not be dropped. Particles and can precede or follow だけ.

A: どこありますか。 Where is it?
B: とうきょうだけあります。or
It's only in Tokyo.

A: だれ はなしましたか。 Who did you talk with?
B: 田中さんだけ はなしました。or
田中さんだけ はなしました。
I talked only with Mr. Tanaka.

Particles and follow だけ.

A: 何語 ( なにご ) かきましたか。 In what language did you write?
B: 日本語だけ かきました。 I wrote only in Japanese.

A: みんなケーキですか。 Is this a cake for everyone?
B: 田中さんだけケーキです。 It's a cake only for Ms. Tanaka.